Skip to main content

Dissociative Disorders: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

Dissociative Disorders

Each one of us experiences a kind of system glitch or a temporary blackout of our brain functioning once in a while. For instance, we may find ourselves driving into an unfamiliar place without knowing why, possibly due to our preoccupation to our personal problems. There are times as well that we tend to separate ourselves from the real world due to the fantastic scenes of a great movie we are watching. These scenarios are what we refer to as non-pathological dissociation. These phenomena normally happen infrequently without causing disruptions and disturbances to our normal functioning.

Individuals with dissociative disorders, however, experience serious disruptions in memory, identity and self-perception. Dissociation among these persons usually happens in a span of several minutes to hours leading to disorientation, confusion, and failure to recognize past events in life.

What is Dissociation

Dissociation is defined as a partial or complete disturbance or disruption in the normal functioning of a person’s cognitive and psychological aspects. This can be precipitated by drug use or experiences of overwhelming stress and trauma. Individuals experiencing dissociation usually describe these events as uncontrollable in nature, intruding into their consciousness in an abrupt fashion.

What are Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative disorders are psychiatric conditions characterized by involuntary disruptions in an individual’s memory, perception, and identity. When cognitive functions are altered, symptoms of these disorders can negatively affect not only the person’s psychological operations but his/her overall body functioning as well.

Frequently caused by an individual’s chronic effort to escape from unbearable emotional pain and trauma, dissociative disorders present several symptoms varying from amnesia to serious disruptions in identity and self-concept.

Types of Dissociative Disorders

The three core manifestations of dissociative disorders include depersonalization, derealization, and psychogenic amnesia. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, however, have categorized dissociative disorders into five types:

Dissociative Amnesia

Also known as psychogenic amnesia, dissociative amnesia is described as a significant memory loss in the absence of a known neurobiological cause. Like other categories of dissociative disorders, this is also related to overwhelming degree of psychological stress.

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Formerly referred to as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder exists when an individual assumes two or more different identities or personalities known as alter egos. In order to be considered as a dissociative identity disorder, at least two alters shall take full control of the person’s behaviors in the absence of a pharmacologic intervention.

Dissociative Fugue

Dissociative fugue is a pathological defense mechanism among individuals who suffered from intensely traumatic events. This is manifested by a temporary loss of memory and identity lasting from hours to months. This may also involve an assumption of a new identity and meaningless wandering.

Depersonalization Disorder

The criteria in diagnosing depersonalization disorder include a repetitive feeling of detachment from one’s own body or consciousness. Depersonalization disorder is famously linked to childhood experiences of abuse and other traumatic events such as violence, torture and accidents. It usually exists with other psychological conditions such as clinical depression, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder.

Dissociative Disorder Otherwise Not Specified

This category of dissociative disorder is applicable to those individuals experiencing chronic and serious dissociation but do not substantially meet the criteria specified on the other types of dissociative disorders.

History of Dissociative Disorders

Back in 1900 BC, Egyptian doctors have long identified the existence of dissociative disorder in some individuals. They refer to this condition as hysteria, a term which originated from the Greek word hystera, meaning uterus. This nomenclature was established due to their belief that the symptoms of dissociative disorder are contributed from a fetus’ abnormal movement around its mother’s womb. It was only until 17th century that the disorder was recognized as a medical condition originating from the brain and not from the uterus.

In 19th century, Charcot, a distinguished neurologist studied the effectiveness of hypnosis in the management of functional irregularities in the brain such as dissociative disorder. His theory was then developed by his student Pierre Janet who conceptualized the experience of dissociation in hysterical patients. He defined dissociation as an overwhelming state in which the brain do not possess the needed energy to process and perform cognitive functions such as memory, perception and decision-making. He added further that dissociation may inhibit the individual from being fully aware of his environment and from being able to develop insights about his self.

Freud, having been able to witness the effectiveness of Charcot’s hypnosis to his patients, collaborated with Breuer and hypothesized that hysteria is a result of suppression of painful memories into the individual’s subconscious mind. With that, he developed techniques of psychotherapy that aids in the expression of repressed thoughts and emotions into the conscious awareness. This will then relieve the distinguishing symptoms of dissociative disorder, leading to the individual’s recovery and rehabilitation.

Dissociative Disorder Symptoms

Aside from presenting disruptions and disturbances to an individual’s cognitive and affective functioning, other manifestations that are common to all types of dissociative disorders include the following: 
  • Poor integration in memory of events, people and time
  • Mental disturbances such as anxiety and depression
  • Feeling of detachment from self
  • Disruption on the perception of self and others

Dissociative Amnesia Symptoms

The most critical sign in the diagnosis of dissociative amnesia is the individual’s serious inability to recall significant information that is far more severe than usual forgetfulness. The emergence of amnesia is usually not related to a neurological disease or trauma.

Amnesia may occur in varying characteristics of onset. Acute onset of amnesia commonly happens infrequently and is characterized by an abrupt unavailability of memories for conscious recall. Patients with this type of dissociative amnesia often present disoriented, perplexed, and meaningless behaviors.

Dissociative Identity Disorder Symptoms

Typically coexisting with dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder is characterized by an individual’s assumption of multiple personalities, each of which possessing distinct name, gender, personal history and characteristics.

In order to be diagnosed for dissociative identity disorder, several specifications shall be manifested as suggested by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The diagnostic criteria for dissociative identity disorder include the presence of two or more identities frequently taking full control over the individual’s mental functioning. Moreover, a marked degree of amnesia not tantamount to normal forgetfulness shall be manifested. These manifestations shall also occur without the actions and side effects of pharmacologic preparations.

Dissociative Fugue Symptoms

The assumption of a new identity and wandering away from home are the hallmarks of dissociative fugue. Patients with this disorder usually experience an inability to recall information about past events and exhibits efforts in running away from an unknown subject.

Aside from the occurrence of an unexpected travel accompanied by grave episodes of amnesia, several other criteria are indicated for the diagnosis of dissociative fugue. These may include critical disturbances on social and other aspects of functioning lasting for hours or, in extreme cases, months. These symptoms shall not be related to the direct effects of drug use.

Depersonalization Disorder Symptoms

Characterized by periods of derealization, depersonalization disorder usually initiates to develop during adolescence with patients experiencing continuous symptoms. This disorder can be acute or gradual in onset and commonly coexists with anxiety and psychotic disorders.

Depersonalization disorder is manifested by recurrent experiences of detachment outside one’s body as if watching a movie. During an episode of depersonalization, perceptions on shapes and sizes of objects and environment usually change leading to identifying persons as unreal or inhuman. These events critically impair the normal cognitive functioning of the patient.

  Read moreUnderstanding Depersonalization and Derealization

What Causes Dissociative Disorders

The development of dissociative disorders begins in early childhood when personal identity is still being formed. Children with experiences of physical, emotional and sexual abuse are prone to manifest disturbances in their psychological functioning. Those who live in a threatening environment also possess certain risks to developing the disorder.

Dissociative disorders develop due to an individual’s effort to escape from a very traumatic event. A child who uses dissociation as a way of coping may utilize this mechanism throughout life. Dissociation with onset in adulthood, on the other hand, occurs less frequently as a result to severe trauma and other overwhelming life events. 

What Causes Dissociative Amnesia

Basing on Freudian psychology, dissociative amnesia is considered as an effort for self-preservation and an alternative to suicide. In conjunction, betrayal trauma theory asserts that dissociative amnesia develops as a response to adapt from childhood abuse. When the relationship between a child and his parent becomes unhealthy, the child may shut himself down from being aware of the trauma to maintain an attachment with his parent in order to survive. 

What Causes Dissociative Identity Disorder

Since high percentage of individuals diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder report childhood abuse, dissociative identity disorder is strongly linked to experiences of abuse. Integrated with inadequate nurturing and the child’s ability to dissociate one’s memories and identity from conscious awareness, the likelihood of developing dissociative identity disorder is further increased.

Children develop their sense of identity from a variety of sources and experiences. Instead of forming a cohesive self-image and self-concept, abused children became overwhelmed from trauma contributing to the chronic separation of the fragments of their identity. Such children may develop distinct self-states in time as an effort to tolerate maltreatment and abuse.

What Causes Dissociative Fugue

Dissociative fugue involves similar causes as dissociative amnesia. Additional etiologic factors include the existence of interpersonal conflict, chronic and intense stress, and persistent desire to escape from one’s life.

Dissociative fugue is regarded as a person’s means in withdrawing self from distressful realities. A financially burdened executive, for example, may opt to live in a farm than continue to endure his demanding life. Fugues can also develop as a defense mechanism to depart from embarrassing events and unbearable stress and as a substitute to suicidal ideations. 

What Causes Depersonalization Disorder

Until today, the exact causative factor of depersonalization disorder continues to be unknown. Several bio-psycho-social aspects, however, have been considered as a contributing factor to the development of the disease.

Like any other types of dissociative disorder, a history of childhood trauma and abuse is identified as a primary influence in the progression of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization can also occur when facing life-threatening events and experiencing the effects of pharmacologic intoxication.

How are Dissociative Disorders Diagnosed

The patient’s medical record is one of the tools necessary in diagnosing dissociative disorders. Initially, thorough assessments and tests shall be performed to dismiss the presence of physical conditions contributing to the emergence of manifestations similar to those of dissociative disorders. Conditions that can produce signs of memory loss and delusions include neurological diseases, sleep deprivation and drug intoxication.

In order to facilitate the diagnosis of dissociative disorders, psychiatrists and mental health professionals usually utilize pharmacologic interventions and hypnosis. Such actions enable the determination of alternate identities and identification of repressed thoughts and memories. 

How is Dissociative Amnesia Diagnosed

Several tests and medical examinations are integrated to diagnose dissociative amnesia. One of the diagnostic exams includes the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which is performed to reject the possible existence of structural problems in the brain. Electroencephalography (EEG) is also done to rule out the presence of seizure disorders while blood and urine tests are performed to determine possible use of drugs that can present certain degrees of memory loss.

How is Dissociative Identity Disorder Diagnosed

Dissociative identity disorder is one of the mental disorders frequently misdiagnosed by psychiatrists. In fact, statistics show that patients have already been diagnosed with at least three different mental conditions before being appropriately diagnosed and treated for dissociative identity disorder.

Psychiatrists, in an effort to provoke a shift of personalities within the patient, may implement prolonged interviews, hypnosis, and administration of drugs such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines. These interventions are significant to determine possible interrelationships between or among distinct identities. 

How is Dissociative Fugue Diagnosed

The diagnosis of dissociative fugue usually involves a retrospective evaluation of the patient’s fugue episodes. Immediately after the occurrence of fugue, patients usually feel dazed and confused regarding their identity and their experiences of the past.

Due to the abrupt and unexpected onset of the disorder, dissociative fugue is not recognized easily. In establishing a diagnosis of the disorder, clinicians commonly rely on documentations and reports providing details regarding the circumstances before, during and after the fugue episode. 

How is Depersonalization Disorder Diagnosed

Similar to the methods indicated for the diagnosis of dissociative amnesia, diagnosing depersonalization disorder require the performance of tests and examinations such as MRI, EEG and blood and urine chemistry. Psychological tests and special interviews are also conducted in order to determine the patient’s extent of deviation from normal cognitive and psychological functioning.

How to Prevent Dissociative Disorders

Childhood experiences of abuse have frequently become the leading causative factor to the development of behavioral and affective disorders such as dissociative disorders. It is therefore logical that in order to prevent the occurrence of dissociative disorders, collaborative efforts to decrease or even fully eradicate incidences of child abuse shall be exerted.

Early recognition of presenting signs and symptoms also play a significant contribution in the prevention of dissociative disorders. It is certainly each and everyone’s responsibility to be proactive in reporting cases of childhood abuse and maltreatment to appropriate authorities and institutions. Doing so will not only help the victimized child but will also facilitate the implementation of programs that will develop nurturing skills among parents and caregivers.

Parents and caregivers also have corresponding obligations that, when successfully accomplished, will promote the child’s holistic well-being thus preventing the emergence of interpersonal issues when the child reaches adulthood. It is definitely a brave and courageous move for abusive parents to admit what they have done wrong and to communicate their need of social help and support.

Doctors and mental health professionals, most importantly, share a critical part in the promotion of a mentally healthy community. Establishing correct diagnoses and providing appropriate treatments is just a couple of tasks that they can do in order to prevent complications, and to facilitate the patient to recovery.

How to Treat Dissociative Disorders

Several techniques and treatment approaches are utilized by mental health professionals in managing dissociative disorders. Psychotherapy, the primary treatment in this condition, and other treatment options however focus into a similar main objective, and that is, to facilitate healthy coping mechanisms to trauma and life’s other stresses.

Other than psychotherapy, there are many other therapeutic methods that are integrated in the care of patients with dissociative disorders. These include:

Creative Art Therapy. Individuals who experience difficulties in expressing deep-seated thoughts and feelings can utilize the opportunities of self-expression there are in creative arts. Through this, patients can enhance their awareness of self and coping abilities. Creative art therapy may be executed in a form of dance, art, music and poetry.

Cognitive Therapy. Cognitive therapy is a subcategory of psychotherapy which involves the transformation of negative perceptions into positive and healthy ones. Based on the theory that our own thoughts dictate our behavior, patients enrolled in this type of talk therapy are trained on how to positively behave when faced in negative situations.

How to Treat Dissociative Amnesia

Treatment approaches for dissociative amnesia usually depends on the duration of the memory loss. For short-term dissociative amnesia, the provision of a supportive environment will usually be sufficient especially when patients do not manifest signs of confusion and disorientation.

Dissociative amnesia occurring in longer duration commonly needs the careful implementation of more rigorous interventions to therapeutically restore the patient’s sense of identity and self-perception. In addition to supportive treatment, patients with dissociative amnesia may need to undergo hypnosis in order to facilitate the recollection of events. Once the amnesia is relieved, the focus of the treatment shifts to the resolution of problems that have led to the amnestic event.

How to Treat Dissociative Identity Disorder

Cohesion of identities and alter egos is the primary goal of treatment for dissociative identity disorder. Regular psychotherapeutic sessions may be integrated with medication administration to allay symptoms of anxiety, depression and impulsivity.

Above other objectives of treatment, the provision of safety and security comes in top priority. While being provided with continuous medical support, psychiatrists and other mental health professionals shall focus as well on addressing the patient’s painful and traumatic memories through psychotherapy.

Hypnosis is also helpful in gaining access to alter egos and initiating a means of communication with them. Once a hypnotic state is achieved, psychotherapists shall interpret the meaning and existence of multiple, distinct identities.

How to Treat Dissociative Fugue

The nature of interventions implemented to address dissociative fugue differs during fugue states and after fugue states. When individuals are still in a fugue, it is necessary to determine the person’s identity with the help of law enforcing agencies and social services personnel. The patient shall then be supported for restoration of memory and identity.

Psychotherapy is only initiated once a fugue episode is over. The main purpose of psychotherapy for patients experiencing dissociative fugue involves the assessment of precipitating factors and the evaluation of means of coping implemented by these patients when conflicts and distressing events arise. Hypnosis will then be achieved through administration of medications in order to develop the patients’ skills in handling stressful situations appropriately.

How to Treat Depersonalization Disorder

Treatment for depersonalization disorder usually focuses on the management of factors that led to the disease progression. This may include minimizing the psychological effects of childhood abuse and maltreatment through desensitization.

Various psycho-therapeutic interventions are proven helpful in the management of signs and symptoms of dissociative disorder. These may include the implementation of cognitive techniques to stop recurring thoughts about the unreal state of being, and behavioral techniques to involve the patient in activities that divert him from depersonalization. Grounding techniques are proven to be effective as well in promoting the connection between the patient and his environment.


Other Posts

How to Deal With the Depression: Basics and Beyond

How to Deal With the Depression It is common to feel sad or blue when dealing with a specific stress, trauma, or a challenging situation, but depression is a much deeper issue. Even when symptoms are minor, this condition is serious. Unfortunately, many people have committed suicide or even homicide because of not getting the care needed. In this article we tried to provide all the required information so you can learn about the truths of mental depression and discover how to deal with the depression . Of all mental health conditions that people face, depression is among those suffered the most, affecting the lives of millions of people all over the world. In fact, globally, more than 264 million people of all ages suffer from depression. ( ref.: WHO Fact sheets on Depression ). And, since the pandemic, percentage of people experiencing depression (and anxiety) symptoms had a manifold rise. Depression affects not only the mind and behaviors, but also physical health, performance, and

Panic Attack and Panic Disorder

Panic Attack and Panic Disorder Panic Attack A panic attack is a sudden or intense anxiety or fear. Panic attacks usually come with the following symptoms: dizziness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, light headedness. Panic attacks are unpredictable and happen in a range of situations.     See also: Anxiety Attack Some people have only one or two in their lifetime, others will have a group of them which center around increasing stress in their life and for others it could be a daily event in which case it is caused a panic disorder. People who suffer on going panic attacks will generally develop a fear of having panic attacks and go on to avoid situations in which escape would be difficult. Some people who have social anxiety disorder often have panic attacks as part of their symptoms. These attacks are also called anxiety attacks and are usually resolved by removing the problem or trigger situation. What does panic attack feel like If you do have panic attacks y

Some Commonly Experienced Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

Signs and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders In this page we will discuss some of the anxiety disorder symptoms which are commonly experienced in generalized anxiety , post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic attacks . It is important to note, however, that anxiety is capable of creating hundreds of different anxiety disorder symptoms, so this is by no means an exclusive list. Shortness of breath / Shallow Breath, and Smothering Sensations : This is one of the most common anxiety disorder symptoms - it may feel as though you aren’t getting enough air into your lungs or as though someone is pressing up against your chest cavity and restricting your air intake. This is just a harmless sensation! Don’t worry about it or be concerned that you aren’t breathing properly because you are! If you weren’t breathing properly you would be unconscious. As with all anxiety disorder symptoms, don’t give these sensations any credit, they will go away. FAQ :